Mortise and Tenon joinery is the time-tested, tried and true method that we use to join together our historic wood window sash designs. Mortise and tenon is the strongest of joinery methods since the wood fibers are continuous,
A mortise is a slot or trough, usually in the edge of a piece of wood. If it's toward the end of a piece of wood it can be open on the end (open mortise) or not (closed mortise). It can go all the way through (through mortise) the piece of wood or only part way through (blind mortise). It can have round (round end) ends or square ends. Regardless of the type, mortise and tenon joints are the standard in the fenestration industry. Because the wood fibers are continuous, mortise and tenon is far better than the multiple alternatives; such as biscuits, splines, dowels and mere screws.
A tenon is a tongue of sorts on the end of a board. It's made by removing stock from either side of the tongue leaving shoulders. There are a number of ways to make a standard tenon with square shoulders. However, in the case of windows or any other project that has a "profile", one of the shoulders must be "coped" for the parts to fit properly. This is much more difficult and it requires specialized equipment.
Unfortunately, just making a mortise in one board and a tenon on another doesn't mean the job is done. If it's a "closed, through mortise" the tenon won' fit properly without some additional mill work called "Haunching".Haunching means cutting off a portion of the tenon in order for it to fit propery into the mortise.
Not only must the waste portion be removed but a portion of the rail has to be relieved to accommodate the profile. This can not be accomplished by merely sawing off the waste but again requires some specialized equipment. Each of the operations mentioned on this page must be performed with the upmost care. If the tenons are not properly positioned, the window will be too wide or too narrow. Likewise, the position of the mortises on the stiles partially determine the height and glass size of the windows. All the precise measuring and cutting are worth it to be able to make the most stable and durable product for our clients.